CARMUNNOCK, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark; containing 717 inhabitants, of whom 390 are in the village, 5 miles (S.) from Glasgow. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from the compound Gaelic word Caer-mannock, signifying "the monk's fort." The remains of antiquity here bear testimony to the settlement and military operations of the Romans; vestiges of a military road and camp, are still to be seen on the estate of Castlemilk, and pieces of ancient armour, with a variety of utensils, have been found. In the reign of William the Lion, the manor was held by Henry, son of Anselm, who assumed the name of Henry of "Cormanock." Some time before the year 1189, he granted the church to the monks of Paisley, with half a carucate of land, and a right of common, and directed that his remains, and those of his wife, should be interred in the monastery. The church was held by the monks till the Reformation. The Parish is about four miles long, from north-east to south-west, and averages about two and a half in breadth; it contains 2810 Scotch acres, of which 2400 are arable, and under a regular system of cultivation, 250 wood, and 106 pasture, the remainder being roads, &c. The surface is considerably elevated, and exhibits a succession of hill and dale, varied with extensive and flourishing plantations, and enlivened by the beautiful meanderings of the river Cart, on the western boundary of the parish, which here borders on Renfrewshire. From the summit of Cathkin-hill, near the eastern boundary, at an elevation of nearly 500 feet above the sea, the prospect embraces parts of sixteen counties, the nearer group consisting of the city of Glasgow, with its surrounding villages, the towns of Rutherglen and Paisley, and the vale of Clyde, from Hamilton to Dumbarton. The parish abounds with springs, and there are five public wells of good water; but the only river running through it is a small stream called the Kittoch.
   The soil, which is generally uniform, consists of good earth, about six or seven inches deep, and resting upon a superior whinstone rock, which extends throughout the parish. In some spots, it is more moist and clayey, with a retentive bottom, yet yielding excellent crops when well drained and manured; in a few places, it is considerably mixed with sand, and too much impoverished to be applied to any use but that of common pasture. Crops of all kinds are raised, and, on account of the highly cultivated state of the soil, are of the highest order; and the greatest encouragement is given to dairy-farming, both for the superior profit it brings to the tenant, and for the manure. The cows are all of the Ayrshire breed; many improvements have taken place in agriculture within the last few years, and furrow-draining with tiles has been extensively practised. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5511. There is a considerable quarry of freestone, of good quality; and on the estate of Castlemilk, excellent limestone and ironstone are found, the latter of which has been partially wrought. The village population are chiefly hand-loom weavers; seven annual fairs are held, some of which are for the sale of horses and cows. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, J. S. S. Stuart, Esq. An excellent manse has been lately built, to which there is a glebe valued at £19 per annum; and the stipend is £152. 17. 6., of which £39. 10. 10. are received from the exchequer. The church, which is situated in the middle of the village, was built in 1767, and repaired in 1838; it is a neat and convenient structure, and seats about 450 persons. There is a dissenters' place of worship; also a parochial school, in which the usual branches of a plain education are taught, and the master of which has the maximum salary, and about £32 fees, with a house and garden. An old thorn-tree here, is much regarded, as marking out the spot from which Mary, Queen of Scots, was a spectator of the defeat of her army at the battle of Langside.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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